Community Development in Asia and the Pacific (Routledge Studies in Development and Society)
In early , the ADB began to re-engage with Myanmar in response to reforms initiated by the government. The ADB defines itself as a social development organization that is dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific through inclusive economic growth , environmentally sustainable growth , and regional integration. This is carried out through investments — in the form of loans, grants and information sharing — in infrastructure, health care services, financial and public administration systems, helping nations prepare for the impact of climate change or better manage their natural resources , as well as other areas.
Eighty percent of ADB's lending is concentrated public sector lending in five operational areas.
The ADB offers "hard" loans on commercial terms primarily to middle income countries in Asia and " soft" loans with lower interest rates to poorer countries in the region. Based on a new policy, both types of loans will be sourced starting January from the bank's ordinary capital resources OCR , which functions as its general operational fund. They also have the capability to provide guarantees, equity and mezzanine finance a combination of debt and equity.
ADB obtains its funding by issuing bonds on the world's capital markets. It also relies on the contributions of member countries, retained earnings from lending operations, and the repayment of loans. ADB provides direct financial assistance, in the form of debt, equity and mezzanine finance to private sector companies, for projects that have clear social benefits beyond the financial rate of return. ADB partners with other development organizations on some projects to increase the amount of funding available.
More than 50 financing partnership facilities, trust funds, and other funds — totalling several billion each year — are administered by ADB and put toward projects that promote social and economic development in Asia and the Pacific.
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ADB has an information disclosure policy that presumes all information that is produced by the institution should be disclosed to the public unless there is a specific reason to keep it confidential. The police calls for accountability and transparency in operations and the timely response to requests for information and documents. Since the ADB's early days, critics have charged that the two major donors, Japan and the United States, have had extensive influence over lending, policy and staffing decisions.
Oxfam Australia has criticized the Asian Development Bank for insensitivity to local communities. There had been criticism that ADB's large scale projects cause social and environmental damage due to lack of oversight. Environmental and human rights activists say ADB's environmental safeguards policy as well as policies for indigenous peoples and involuntary resettlement , while usually up to international standards on paper, are often ignored in practice, are too vague or weak to be effective, or are simply not enforced by bank officials. The bank has been criticized over its role and relevance in the food crisis.
The ADB has been accused by civil society of ignoring warnings leading up the crisis and also contributing to it by pushing loan conditions that many say unfairly pressure governments to deregulate and privatize agriculture, leading to problems such as the rice supply shortage in Southeast Asia. Hence, with the vast majority of loans going to concessionary sub-market loans to the public sector, the ADB is facing considerable financial difficulty and continuous operating losses.
The following table are amounts for 20 largest countries by subscribed capital and voting power at the Asian Development Bank as of December At the time a country ceases to be a member, the Bank shall arrange for the repurchase of such country's shares by the Bank as a part of the settlement of accounts with such country in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Outside regions. Asia-Pacific region. This section may contain excessive or inappropriate references to self-published sources. Please help improve it by removing references to unreliable sources , where they are used inappropriately.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Asia-Pacific region developed members. DMC graduated from assistance, Group-D. Banks portal. Asian Development Bank. Retrieved Pacific Affairs. University of British Columbia.
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Archived from the original on Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved on April 21, The World Bank: Perspectives. Brookings Institution Press. Magill 23 April Chron 20c Hist Bus Comer. Lao People's Democratic Republic. Oxford Policy Management. The Review of International Organizations. Oxfam Australia. The Japan Times. December However, its share of Bank capital was based on the size of Taiwan's capital, unlike the World Bank and IMF where the government in Taiwan had had a share.
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However, the ROC was allowed to retain its membership, but under the name of Taipei, China space deliberately omitted after the comma — a name it protests. Uniquely, this allows both sides of the Taiwan Straits to be represented at the institution. International development and investment banks. African Development Bank. South—South cooperation and Third Worldism. Landlocked developing countries Least Developed Countries Heavily indebted poor countries. Emerging markets Newly industrialized country Transition economy.
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New Zealand. Korea, Republic of. With the support of this small group of colleagues, I agreed to become co-convener and to activate the branch. Yasoo Hagiwara initiated a meeting with the faculty of Social Administration, Thammasat University, on October 17, , and he and I traveled to Bangkok with Miyuki Inaba to attend this meeting.
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