Functions of the Right Cerebral Hemisphere
The cerebrum is organised into two hemispheres that are responsible for higher order functions and complex skills. Not all complex tasks are equally represented by both cerebral hemispheres — some activities are localised to a single side. Information can be passed between the two hemispheres by a bundle of myelinated nerve fibres embedded within the brain. Lateralization of Brain Function. The left cerebral hemisphere is responsible for processing sensory information from the right side of the body and vice versa.
The Lobes of the Brain
A consequence of this contralateral processing is that damage to one side of the brain affects the other side of the body. Contralateral Processing. Brent Cornell. Cell Introduction 2. Cell Structure 3.
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Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia
Cell Division 2: Molecular Biology 1. Metabolic Molecules 2. Water 3. Protein 5. Enzymes 6. Cell Respiration 9. Photosynthesis 3: Genetics 1. Genes 2. Chromosomes 3. Meiosis 4. Inheritance 5. Genetic Modification 4: Ecology 1. Energy Flow 3. Carbon Cycling 4. The nerve cell bodies color the cortex grey-brown giving it its name — gray matter Fig. Beneath the cortex are long nerve fibers axons that connect brain areas to each other — called white matter.
Each fold is called a gyrus, and each groove between folds is called a sulcus. There are names for the folds and grooves that help define specific brain regions. Pathways called white matter tracts connect areas of the cortex to each other. Messages can travel from one gyrus to another, from one lobe to another, from one side of the brain to the other, and to structures deep in the brain Fig. Hypothalamus: is located in the floor of the third ventricle and is the master control of the autonomic system. It plays a role in controlling behaviors such as hunger, thirst, sleep, and sexual response.
It also regulates body temperature, blood pressure, emotions, and secretion of hormones.
Pituitary gland: lies in a small pocket of bone at the skull base called the sella turcica. The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus of the brain by the pituitary stalk. It secretes hormones that control sexual development, promote bone and muscle growth, and respond to stress. Pineal gland : is located behind the third ventricle. It has some role in sexual development. Thalamus : serves as a relay station for almost all information that comes and goes to the cortex.
It plays a role in pain sensation, attention, alertness and memory. Basal ganglia: includes the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus. These nuclei work with the cerebellum to coordinate fine motions, such as fingertip movements. Limbic system: is the center of our emotions, learning, and memory.
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Included in this system are the cingulate gyri, hypothalamus, amygdala emotional reactions and hippocampus memory. Memory is a complex process that includes three phases: encoding deciding what information is important , storing, and recalling. Different areas of the brain are involved in different types of memory Fig. Your brain has to pay attention and rehearse in order for an event to move from short-term to long-term memory — called encoding. The brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles Fig.
Inside the ventricles is a ribbon-like structure called the choroid plexus that makes clear colorless cerebrospinal fluid CSF. CSF flows within and around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion it from injury. This circulating fluid is constantly being absorbed and replenished. There are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro.
The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled or absorbed by special structures in the superior sagittal sinus called arachnoid villi.
A balance is maintained between the amount of CSF that is absorbed and the amount that is produced. A disruption or blockage in the system can cause a build up of CSF, which can cause enlargement of the ventricles hydrocephalus or cause a collection of fluid in the spinal cord syringomyelia.
The purpose of the bony skull is to protect the brain from injury. The skull is formed from 8 bones that fuse together along suture lines. These bones include the frontal, parietal 2 , temporal 2 , sphenoid, occipital and ethmoid Fig. The face is formed from 14 paired bones including the maxilla, zygoma, nasal, palatine, lacrimal, inferior nasal conchae, mandible, and vomer. Inside the skull are three distinct areas: anterior fossa, middle fossa, and posterior fossa Fig. Similar to cables coming out the back of a computer, all the arteries, veins and nerves exit the base of the skull through holes, called foramina.
The big hole in the middle foramen magnum is where the spinal cord exits.
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The brain communicates with the body through the spinal cord and twelve pairs of cranial nerves Fig. Ten of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves that control hearing, eye movement, facial sensations, taste, swallowing and movement of the face, neck, shoulder and tongue muscles originate in the brainstem.
The cranial nerves for smell and vision originate in the cerebrum. The brain and spinal cord are covered and protected by three layers of tissue called meninges. From the outermost layer inward they are: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. Dura mater: is a strong, thick membrane that closely lines the inside of the skull; its two layers, the periosteal and meningeal dura, are fused and separate only to form venous sinuses.
The dura creates little folds or compartments. There are two special dural folds, the falx and the tentorium. The falx separates the right and left hemispheres of the brain and the tentorium separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum. Arachnoid mater: is a thin, web-like membrane that covers the entire brain.
The arachnoid is made of elastic tissue. The space between the dura and arachnoid membranes is called the subdural space. Pia mater: hugs the surface of the brain following its folds and grooves. The pia mater has many blood vessels that reach deep into the brain.
The space between the arachnoid and pia is called the subarachnoid space. It is here where the cerebrospinal fluid bathes and cushions the brain. Blood is carried to the brain by two paired arteries, the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries Fig. The internal carotid arteries supply most of the cerebrum. The vertebral arteries supply the cerebellum, brainstem, and the underside of the cerebrum. After passing through the skull, the right and left vertebral arteries join together to form the basilar artery. The communication between the internal carotid and vertebral-basilar systems is an important safety feature of the brain.
If one of the major vessels becomes blocked, it is possible for collateral blood flow to come across the Circle of Willis and prevent brain damage. The venous circulation of the brain is very different from that of the rest of the body. Usually arteries and veins run together as they supply and drain specific areas of the body. So one would think there would be a pair of vertebral veins and internal carotid veins.
However, this is not the case in the brain. The major vein collectors are integrated into the dura to form venous sinuses — not to be confused with the air sinuses in the face and nasal region. The venous sinuses collect the blood from the brain and pass it to the internal jugular veins. The superior and inferior sagittal sinuses drain the cerebrum, the cavernous sinuses drains the anterior skull base.