The Ayn Rand Reader
An impassioned proponent of reason, rational self-interest, individualism, and laissez-faire capitalism, she expressed her unique views in numerous works of fiction and non-fiction that have been brought together for the first time in this one-of-a-kind volume. Containing excerpts from all her novels—including Atlas Shrugged, Anthem , and We The Living—The Ayn Rand Reader is a perfect introduction for those who have never read Rand, and provides teachers with an excellent guide to the basics of her viewpoint.
Anthem followed in It was with the publication of The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged that she achieved her spectacular success. The Objectivist Ethics 2. The Individual vs. Capitalism vs. Collectivism What is Capitalism? In her own words, her philosophy, in essence, is the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute. Her novels show the importance of striving to be the best we can be: Do not let your fire go out, spark by irreplaceable spark, in the hopeless swamps of the approximate, the not-quite, the not-yet, the not-at-all.
As she puts it: Metaphysically, life is the only phenomenon that is an end in itself: a value gained and kept by a constant process of action. Animals of many species risk their own death for the sake of reproduction, or for protecting their young or even their group. But even if survival were the ultimate goal of other species, it need not be ours. Even if our own survival needs were the source of all our values, it would not follow that survival must be the ultimate psychological and moral goal to which all our other values are merely necessary means.
The genesis of x does not logically determine the ultimate goal of x. The survivalist view that turns happiness into a mere means to survival entails, quite implausibly, that a long, unhappy life is better than a somewhat shorter but happy life, and just as good as a long and happy one. Many dictators, including the Pharaohs of the past and the Stalins and Maos of the 20 th century, have survived by making elaborate plans to preserve their lives and their power by using a combination of terror, myth, and bribery. So have many common criminals.
So even if morality enhances our chances of survival, it cannot be necessary for survival. Under some circumstances, such as in a dictatorial system, acting morally decreases our chances of survival, a point that Rand herself convincingly dramatizes in We the Living and Anthem. A survivalist ethics can support, at best, a bare-bones Hobbesian morality, not a virtue ethics. Her rich and challenging picture of human life and virtue in her novels points to a richer and more challenging conception of the final end than mere survival.
Neither can be reduced to survival. For example, she also says that, as fallible creatures, human beings must be free to agree or disagree, to cooperate or to pursue their own independent course, each according to his own rational judgment. Rand argues that the only just social-political system, the only system compatible with our rational nature and with the right of individuals to live for their own sakes, is capitalism , b , that is, laissez-faire capitalism—with a separation of state and economics, in the same way and for the same reasons as the separation of state and church.
Rand defines government as an institution that holds the exclusive power to enforce certain rules of social conduct in a given geographical area.
Paul Ryan’s Ayn Rand Reader: Lesson Two
Aesthetics Rand holds that our actions need guidance by a vision of the fundamental nature of the universe and of the efficacy of human thought and activity—a vision that can be grasped directly rather than requiring the conscious repetition of long chains of abstract reasoning. New York: New American Library.
Binswanger ed. Binswanger and L. Peikoff eds , New York: Meridian; 1 st edition, Peikoff ed. Berliner ed. Harriman ed. Schwartz ed. Hull and L. Peikoff, New York: Plume. Boeckmann ed. Mayhew ed. Podritske and P. Works by Others Badhwar, N. Paul ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hunt, and David Kelley, and a Reply by Badhwar. Poughkeepsie: Objectivist Center.
New York: Oxford University Press. Barnes, H. Binswanger, H. Bissell, R.
Branden, B. Branden, , Who is Ayn Rand? Branden, N. Brown, S. Browne, G. Brownmiller, S. Burns, J. Childs, R. Childs, Jr. Taylor ed. Cox, S. Den Uyl, D. Dipert, R. Feyerabend, P. Flew, A. Gilligan, C. Ghate, O. Gladstein, M. Glennon, L. Gotthelf, A.
Aeon for Friends
Lennox, and G. Hampton, J. Harrison B. September : 24—34, reprinted in Gladstein and Sciabarra 67— Heller, A. Hospers, J.
Ayn Rand Reader - Ayn Rand - Google книги
Hunt, L. Johnson, C. Kelley, D. Khawaja, I. King, C. Kuhn, T. Lennox, J. Long, R. Miller, Jr. Machan, T. Mack, E. Matson, W. McConnell, S. McElroy, W. Michalson, K. Miller, F.
Narveson, J. Nozick, R. Peikoff, L. Podritske, M. Powell, Aaron ed. Pojman, L. Fieser, Cengage Advantage Books. Presley, S. Rachels, J. Cahn ed. Rasmussen, D. Younkins ed. Salmieri, G.
ISBN 13: 9780452280403
Sciabarra, C. Sheaffer, R. Shermer, M. Swanton, C.
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Perhaps her most significant early follower was Alan Greenspan , later to serve as chairman of the US Federal Reserve for 19 years. In the s, Greenspan was one of the Collective, and he would be among the mourners at her funeral in , where one floral wreath was fashioned into that same 6ft dollar sign, now understood to be the logo of Randism.
That view — which Greenspan would rethink after the crash of — rested on the assumption that economic actors behave rationally, always acting in their own self-interest. The primacy of self-interest, rather than altruism or any other nonmaterial motive, was, of course, a central tenet of Randian thought.
Rand was Gordon Gekko with A-levels. The third age of Rand came with the financial crash and the presidency of Barack Obama that followed. Spooked by the fear that Obama was bent on expanding the state, the Tea Party and others returned to the old-time religion of rolling back government. Paul offered a radical downsizing of the federal government. But Rand presented a problem for US Republicans otherwise keen to embrace her legacy.
She was a devout atheist, withering in her disdain for the nonobjectivist mysticism of religion. Yet, inside the Republican party, those with libertarian leanings have only been able to make headway by riding pillion with social conservatives and, specifically, white evangelical Christians. What of the current moment, shaping up to be the fourth age of Rand? The Randian politicians are still in place: Ryan is now boosted by a cabinet crammed with objectivists.
Of course, this merely makes these men like their boss. Trump is notoriously no reader of books: he has only ever spoken about liking three works of fiction.
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But, inevitably, one of them was The Fountainhead. That book relates to